International Trade transactions could generate a currency risk exposure. This is especially so when an Exporter accepts to be paid in a foreign currency. Indeed, since the time span between the sales contract is signed and the payment is made, could take several weeks or months, the foreign currency is likely to fluctuate in the meantime and impact (favourably or adversely) the final amount received by the Seller when currency exchange has been translated in the domestic currency.
In much the same way, an Importer who accepts to pay a given amount denominated in a foreign currency is exposed to currency adverse movements.
In short, we can see that the seller and the buyer have conflicting interests, since the Exporter is exposed to the depreciation of the foreign currency that he will receive, while the Importer is exposed to the appreciation of the foreign currency in which he must honour a payment.
One way to get around this problem could be to require an upfront payment in the local currency. However it goes without saying that this option is somehow business-unfriendly, to say the least. In addition, granting extended payment terms might be the only way to conquer new markets.
Fortunately, this risk can be managed by using the appropriate hedging solution.
Overall, two types of hedging tools are available in International trade: Internal and External hedging techniques.