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  • Trade Policy Review: Saudi Arabia March 3, 2021
    The third review of the trade policies and practices of Saudi Arabia takes place on 3 and 5 March 2021. The basis for the review is a report by the WTO Secretariat and a report by the Government of Saudi Arabia.
    WTO
  • Civil society call for fishing subsidies deal welcomed by Dr Ngozi and negotiations chair March 1, 2021
    Director-General Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala welcomed civil society’s plea for a successful conclusion to the fisheries subsidies negotiations, illustrated through a fish ice sculpture set up by a coalition of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in front of the WTO headquarters on 1 March. Dr Okonjo-Iweala visited the sculpture accompanied by the chair of the negotiations, Ambassador Santiago Wills […]
    WTO
  • Twelfth Ministerial Conference to take place in Geneva in late 2021 March 1, 2021
    WTO members have agreed that the organization’s Twelfth Ministerial Conference (MC12) will take place in the week of 29 November 2021 in Geneva, Switzerland. The timing and venue were endorsed at a meeting of the WTO’s General Council on 1 March.
    WTO
  • DG Okonjo-Iweala: WTO can deliver results if members “accept we can do things differently” March 1, 2021
    Addressing the WTO General Council immediately after taking office on 1 March, Director-General Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala called on members to “do things differently” to achieve reforms necessary to keep the WTO relevant, starting with swift action to curb harmful fisheries subsidies, and to help scale up COVID-19 vaccine production and distribution. The new head of the […]
    WTO

Incoterms



 

The International Commercial Terms

 

International Commercial Terms (Incoterms ® 2010) are issued by the International Chamber of Commerce and define the conditions under which international trade transactions take place.

In other words, the Incoterms ® 2010 determine crucial aspects such as the time of the transfer of the risks, which party is liable for cost of transports, insurance costs and custom clearance to name but a few. 

By contrast with domestic transactions, exportation or importation of goods are characterised by a high level of complexity.

Indeed, as you can see in the figure below, an international transaction has to go through several steps likely to be a source of problems.

 

 

Since the Incoterms ®2010 is a standard accepted worldwide, professionals willing to avoid any ambiguity within their International sale contracts, can rely on this strong framework and thereby optimise their risk management processes.

Overall, we can distinguish between two types of Incoterms:

  • – Any mode of transport
  • – Maritime transport applicable for Sea and Inland Waterway

 

 

Incoterms 2010 table

Incoterms 2010 table

 


 

In addition, Incoterms ® rules can be divided 4 groups :

 

Group E: Goods at the buyer’s disposal in the Seller’s premises.

Ex Works (Low commitment)

 

Group F: Main carriage paid by the Buyer

FCA, FOB, FAS (moderate commitment)

 

Group C: Main carriage paid by the Seller

CFR, CPT, CIP, CIP (High commitment)

 

Group D: Seller’s responsible up to agreed delivery address

DAT, DAP, DDP (Very High commitment)

 

 

Attention should be paid to the fact that the transfer of ownership is not determined by the Incoterms rules, but by the terms and conditions of the sales contract.

 

Moreover, it is of paramount importance to clearly specify the Incoterms ®2010 version applicable in the sales contracts. Indeed, since prior versions (such as 2000, 1980 versions for instance) might imply different obligations, by embedding the Incoterms ®2010 version in the sales contract, professionals ensure that business relationships are based on clear-cut set of rules.

In addition, it must pointed out that that electronic documents are considered as an equivalent of paper format provided that the Seller and the buyer agree to use this method of communication. ( must be specified in the contract)