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  • WTO issues 2020 Annual Report May 28, 2020
    The WTO’s Annual Report, published today (28 May), provides a comprehensive account of the organization’s activities in 2019 and early 2020. The Report opens with a message from Director-General Roberto Azevêdo and a brief overview of the year. This is followed by in-depth accounts of the WTO’s main areas of activity over the past 12 […]
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  • 2020 WTO Public Forum cancelled May 28, 2020
    After careful consideration of COVID-19 related uncertainties and health concerns, the WTO has decided to cancel this year’s WTO Public Forum, scheduled for 29 September to 2 October. This decision responds to the complexities around planning to host thousands of people from around the world for a public event under the WTO roof, as well […]
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  • DDG Wolff: This is the time to consider the future of the multilateral trading system May 27, 2020
    The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has heightened the urgent need to examine the underlying principles and values of the WTO and whether the organization needs change, Deputy Director-General Alan Wolff said on 27 May. Speaking at a webinar hosted by the Korean International Trade Association, DDG Wolff called for immediate action to control the […]
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  • Members discuss impact of COVID-19 on developing economies’ participation in world trade May 26, 2020
    On 26 May, WTO members assessed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the trading capacity of developing countries in a virtual meeting of the Committee on Trade and Development. The new chair, Afghanistan’s WTO Ambassador, Mohammad Qurban Haqjo, said: “Trade must form part of the solution in assisting and supporting recovery in developing countries.”
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Incoterms



 

The International Commercial Terms

 

International Commercial Terms (Incoterms ® 2010) are issued by the International Chamber of Commerce and define the conditions under which international trade transactions take place.

In other words, the Incoterms ® 2010 determine crucial aspects such as the time of the transfer of the risks, which party is liable for cost of transports, insurance costs and custom clearance to name but a few. 

By contrast with domestic transactions, exportation or importation of goods are characterised by a high level of complexity.

Indeed, as you can see in the figure below, an international transaction has to go through several steps likely to be a source of problems.

 

 

Since the Incoterms ®2010 is a standard accepted worldwide, professionals willing to avoid any ambiguity within their International sale contracts, can rely on this strong framework and thereby optimise their risk management processes.

Overall, we can distinguish between two types of Incoterms:

  • – Any mode of transport
  • – Maritime transport applicable for Sea and Inland Waterway

 

 

Incoterms 2010 table

Incoterms 2010 table

 


 

In addition, Incoterms ® rules can be divided 4 groups :

 

Group E: Goods at the buyer’s disposal in the Seller’s premises.

Ex Works (Low commitment)

 

Group F: Main carriage paid by the Buyer

FCA, FOB, FAS (moderate commitment)

 

Group C: Main carriage paid by the Seller

CFR, CPT, CIP, CIP (High commitment)

 

Group D: Seller’s responsible up to agreed delivery address

DAT, DAP, DDP (Very High commitment)

 

 

Attention should be paid to the fact that the transfer of ownership is not determined by the Incoterms rules, but by the terms and conditions of the sales contract.

 

Moreover, it is of paramount importance to clearly specify the Incoterms ®2010 version applicable in the sales contracts. Indeed, since prior versions (such as 2000, 1980 versions for instance) might imply different obligations, by embedding the Incoterms ®2010 version in the sales contract, professionals ensure that business relationships are based on clear-cut set of rules.

In addition, it must pointed out that that electronic documents are considered as an equivalent of paper format provided that the Seller and the buyer agree to use this method of communication. ( must be specified in the contract)