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  • Heads of WTO and development banks voice support for trade finance amid COVID-19 crisis July 1, 2020
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  • WTO report on G20 shows moves to facilitate imports even as trade restrictions remain widespread June 29, 2020
    While import-restrictive measures introduced by Group of 20 (G20) economies continue to cover a growing share of trade, the WTO’s latest biannual monitoring report on trade measures — the first to cover a time period coinciding with the coronavirus pandemic — points to significant moves to facilitate imports, including products related to COVID-19. During the […]
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  • DDG Wolff: WTO acceding governments reconfirm value of multilateral trading system June 29, 2020
    At a time when the WTO is under heightened scrutiny and reform of the WTO is a subject of concern for all, the efforts undertaken by acceding governments to join the organization are a force for change, Deputy Director-General Alan Wolff said on 29 June. Speaking at the virtual opening session of the WTO’s Accessions […]
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Netting



 

Netting is a currency risk management method, which is adapted to multinational companies willing to reduce their currency hedging costs engendered by the transactions that take place between their subsidiaries.

 

Indeed multinational companies have to optimise on a regular basis financial flows that take place between their subsidiaries. This consists essentially in offsetting inverse positions, which could be bilateral or multilateral.

 

Bilateral Netting.

 

Let ‘s take the example of a Japanese multinational with a Spanish and Chinese subsidiary. Let’s consider that the Spanish subsidiary must pay 500 000 USD to the Chinese subsidiary while in turn, the Chinese subsidiary must pay 300 000 USD to the Spanish subsidiary at the same date. (See figure 1)

 

In this case, the Japanese multinational can reduce its hedging costs by offsetting the positions. Indeed, by hedging 200 000 USD (500 000 – 300 000) instead of 800 000 USD (500 000 + 300 000), the relative foreign exchange exposure is reduced.

 

Providing that 3% fees is necessary for hedging the foreign currency, we can see that in this example the associated cost would have been reduced from 24000 USD (800 000 * 3%) to 6000 USD (200 000 * 3%)

 

In other words, bilateral netting consists in covering net exposures instead of gross exposures.

 

Multilateral Netting with multiple currencies

 

Multilateral Netting is a cost-effective way to optimise global cash management and currency risks, especially when numerous subsidiaries operate with each other by using several foreign currencies.

Here, a Netting centre which will act, as an internal clearinghouse will be created. As a result, Multinational corporations can neutralise their foreign currency exposure by reducing their hedging costs.

 

Let’s take the example of a multinational, which has 4 subsidiaries operating in 4 currencies. (See figure 2 below)

Figure 2

 

Based on those figures the net position for each subsidiary is as follows :

 

Exchange rate adopted:

 

EUR / USD: 1.0524

EUR / GBP: 0.8559

EUR / JPY: 119.909

 

 Net exposure on Italian subsidiary: + 201.092 EUR

390+120+360 – (300/119.909+480/1.0524+180/0.8559)= + 201.092

 

Net exposure on Japanese Subsidiary: -100 296,7347 JPY

160+300+140-(390*119.909+180/1,0524*119.909+240/0.8559*119.909)=

-100 296,7347

 

Net exposure on U.S subsidiary: +433.9906 USD

180+480+400- (360*1.0524+140/119.909* 1.0524+200/0.8559*1.0524) =

+433.9906

 

Net exposure on UK subsidiary: +190.8363 GBP

200+240+180 – (120*0.8559+160/119.909*0.8559+400/1.0524*0.8559) =

+190.8363 GBP

 

 

 As we can see, the final currency exposure of this multinational becomes 0

201.092 EUR – (100 296,7347/119.909)+(433.9906 /1.0524)+ (190.8363/0.8559) = 0!!!!!!!

 

In this example, although each subsidiary does have an exposure to foreign currency risks, it is in the best interest of the multinational to centralise the risk management at the group level via a clearinghouse.

Indeed, by doing so the currency risks, the associated hedging costs as well as the duplicate purchases and sales of foreign currencies are avoided.

 

However it must be highlighted that netting requires a high level of coordination between subsidiaries since the foreign currency offsetting is only possible with payments, which have the same payment maturity. In other words, this method depends to a significant extent on technologies, which provide an access to financial information at the multinational level and as a result, enable subsidiaries to adjust and monitor payment maturities Internationally.

 

Please click on the links below for a detailed explanation of each technique